illustration ©2012 Larry Vienneau, Jr.



The Reverend Israel Folsom (1802–1870) was born in the Choctaw Nation in Mississippi, the son of a white trader and his Choctaw wife. A Presbyterian minister, he was among the first generation of Choctaw Christian preachers. He saw Choctaw culture passing away and spoke in the cause of preserving their traditions, and saw no conflict between being Choctaw and being Christian. In 1864 he was president of the Grand Council of the Sixth Confederate Indian Nation. Folsom’s poem, They May Bury the Steel, is taken from his essay Choctaw Traditions: Introductory Remarks.


Native American Classics:
Graphic Classics Volume 24
144 pages, color, $15